KIM'S TIMELINE OF (MAINLY) AMERICAN HISTORY, Part 2: from 1861 to 1941
CIVIL WAR TO WORLD WAR II

(Click here for Part 1: 1000 to 1860)
(Click here for Part 3: 1941 to present)

1861................Abraham Lincoln inaugurated as 16th US President
.......................Civil War: SC secedes from the Union, followed by MS, FL, AL, GA, LA,and TX;
..................................formation of the Confederate States of America; Jefferson Davis, President;
..................................VA, AR, NC secede; Fort Sumter surrenders to Confederates; Confederate
..................................victory at Bull Run
.......................1st transcontinental telegraph line completed; end of the Pony Express
.......................US introduces passport system
.......................Archeopteryx skeleton discovered in Germany, link between reptile and bird
.......................Rebecca Harding Davis, Life in the Iron Mills; Linda Brent, Incidents in the Life of a
...................................Slave Girl
; Charles Dickens, Great Expectations

1862................Civil War: Union defeats at Second Bull Run and Fredericksburg; 1st sea battle of ironclad
............................... warships between the Monitor and the Merrimack
.......................Second Confiscation Act passes Congress, permits military to enlist African Americans
.......................Pacific Railroad Act: authorizes transcontinental rail line along 42nd parallel
.......................Homestead Act: allows citizens to settle up to 160 acres of unclaimed public land in the
...................................west and receive title after making improvements and residing on the land for 5
...................................years
.......................Congress outlaws polygamy, targeting Mormons; the law is ignored in UT
.......................US Congress frees all slaves in DC
.......................Union Gen. Ulysses S. Grant issues General Order No. 11, blaming Jews "as a class" for
...................................inflation and ordering their expulsion from Tennessee, Kentucky, and Mississippi;
...................................hundreds are forced to leaves their homes and businesses. Pres. A. Lincoln
...................................rescinds the order 3 weeks later
.......................Second Confiscation Act passed by US Congress, permits military to enlist African Americans
.......................President Lincoln's son Willie dies of typhoid fever in the White House
.......................Julia Ward Howe writes “"The Battle Hymn of the Republic"
.......................Elizabeth Keckley founds Contraband Relief Assn.
.......................1st practical machine for milking cows (using rubber cups and suction), patented by Leighton
...................................O. Colvin
.......................James Abbott McNeill Whistler, Sympony in White, No. 1: The White Girl
.......................Christina Rossetti, Goblin Market and Other Poems; Victor Hugo, Les Misérables

1863................WV admitted as 35th state
.......................AZ and ID organized as territories
.......................Civil War: Lincoln issues Emancipation Proclamation, granting freedom to enslaved people in
...................................Rebel states; Union defeats at Chancellorsville, VA and Chickamauga GA; victories at
...................................Gettysburg PA, Vicksburg MS, and Chattanooga TN; Lincoln delivers Gettysburg
...................................Address at dedication of military cemetery, stating "Government of the people, by the
...................................people, for the people, shall not perish from the earth"
.......................NYC draft riots to protest the practice of hired substitutes and commutation fees available
...................................to upper class men; mobs of working class men and new immigrants vandalize
...................................homes and businesses for 3 days and kill 105 people in the worst civil disturbance in US
...................................history. Free African Americans, Republican party blgs., and army recruiting stations are
...................................singled out for attacks.
.......................National Academy of Sciences founded in DC
.......................University of MA founded in Amherst as MA Agricultural College
.......................Frederick Douglass is 1st African American to have a formal meeting with a US President inside
...................................the White House; meets with Lincoln in July to discuss treatment of black soldiers in the
...................................Union army
.......................1st paper dress patterns developed by Ebenezer Butterick
.......................Roller skating introduced to America
.......................Pres. Lincoln declares the last Thursday of November to be Thanksgiving Day
.......................Freedom statue installed atop US Capitol dome, sculpted by Thomas Crawford
.......................Albert Bierstadt, Rocky Mountains, "Lander's Peak"
.......................Walt Whitman moves to Washington DC and begins work as volunteer Civil War nurse
.......................Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, Tales of a Wayside Inn; Louisa May Alcott, Hospital Sketches

1864................NV admitted as 36th state
.......................Organization of territory of MT
.......................Civil War: Ulysses S. Grant secedes Gen. Halleck as Commander-in-Chief of Union armies; Gen
...................................Sherman marches his army from Chattanooga through GA; defeats Confederate army at
...................................Atlanta and occupies Savannah
.......................Congress passes a bill calling for equal pay, equipment, arms, and health care for African-American
...................................Union troops
.......................Lincoln vetoes the Wade-Davis Reconstruction Bill, proposing harsh penalities on the South if a
...................................Union victory is achieved
.......................Massacre of Cheyenne and Arapahoe Indians at Sand Creek, CO by US soldiers. Up to 500 Indians,
...................................mostly women and children, are murdered, while under the promised protection of Fort
...................................Lyon
.......................Arlington National Cemetery founded
......................."In God We Trust" 1st appears on US coins
.......................Gallaudet University founded to educate deaf and hard of hearing students
.......................New Orleans Tribune begins publication, one of 1st daily newspapers produced by African Americans
.......................Karl Marx founds 1st International Workingmen's Assn. in London and NY

1865................Lincoln assassinated by John Wilkes Booth April 14
.......................Andrew Johnson inaugurated 17th US President
.......................Civil War: Union fleet takes Charleston; Richmond surrenders to Grant; Jefferson Davis appoints Robert
...................................E. Lee General-in-Chief of the Confederate Army; Robert E. Lee formally surrenders to U.S.
...................................Grant at Appomattox Courthouse, VA April 9; Surrender of last Confederate Army in Shreveport,
...................................LA on May 26
.......................1st African American to addres the US House of Representatives: Abolitionist minister Henry Highland
...................................Garnet preaches a Sunday morning sermon against slavery to a packed chamber
.......................1st African American lawyer licensed to practice before the US Supreme Court, Dr. John Sweat Rock
.......................13th Amendment to US Constitution abolishes slavery in the US
.......................Establishment of the Freedman's Bureau to treat, feed, shelter, and house 4 million formerly enslaved
...................................people of the Confederacy
.......................Founding of Ku Klux Klan in Pulaski, TN
.......................Founding of Purdue, Cornell, the University of Maine, the University of Kentucky, and the Massachusetts
...................................Institute of Technology
.......................Opening of Vassar College to women; 1st woman professor hired (of astronomy), Maria Mitchell
.......................1st train holdup at North Bend, OH
.......................1st railroad sleeper cars appear in US, designed by George Pullman
.......................The Capitol dome is completed in Washington, DC
.......................Union Stockyards open in Chicago
.......................1st oil pipeline in PA (6 miles)
.......................1st modern pin-tumbler locks and keys developed by Linus Yale, Jr.
.......................1st professional baseball players; Baseball Convention held in NY, representing 91 clubs
.......................Yale University opens 1st Dept. of Fine Arts in US
.......................Walt Whitman, Drum Taps; Lewis Carroll, Alice's Adventures in Wonderland

1866................14th Amendment to the Constitution prohibits voting discrimination, denies government office to certain
...................................Civil War rebels, and repudiates Confederate war debts
.......................Pres. Johnson vetoes New Freedman's Bureau Bill, which would have given the Bureau the power to
...................................accuse anyone denying African Americans their rights
.......................Gen. Philip Sheridan commands US forces in the Indian Wars, advocates extermination of tribes:
...................................“"Kill the buffalo and you kill the Indians"
.......................Charles Goodnight and Oliver Loving drive 2,000 longhorn cattle from TX to NM, blazing the 1st cattle
...................................trail
.......................1st Ku Klux Klan chapter organized in TN, with the goal of preserving white supremacy throughout the
...................................South
.......................Memphis Massacre: white civilians and police murder 46 African Americans and burn Black-owned
...................................property
.......................Alfred Nobel invents dynamite
.......................National Labor Union forms to call for a mandatory 8-hour workday; they are unsuccessful
.......................Andrew Carnegie begins endowing public libraries throughout the US (through 1917); eventually 1,689
...................................library buildings would be built in 1,421 communities
.......................John Greenleaf Whittier, Snow-Bound

1867................NE admitted as 37th state
.......................Reconstruction begins
.......................Russia sells AK to US for $7,200,000
.......................British North American Act establishes Dominion of Canada
.......................Gold discovered in WY
.......................DC residents granted suffrage
.......................Howard University granted charter from Congress for higher education of African Americans
.......................1st cattle drive from TX to KS on the Chisholm Trail
.......................Medicine Lodge Treaty: Comanche, Kiowa, Cheyenne, Arapaho and other southern Plains tribes forced to
...................................give up lands on the Plains for reservations in OK to remove Indians from the path of white
...................................settlement
.......................Mass production of barbed wire by Washburn & Moen of Worcester, MA
.......................1st bicycles manufactured in France by Pierre Michaux

1868................Pres. Johnson dismisses his Secretary of War without consent of Congress; impeachment proceedings
...................................charge Pres. with “"high crimes and misdemeanors" but is acquitted by a single vote by Senate
.......................14th Amendment grants citizenship to any person born or naturalized in the US
.......................John W. Menard elected to the House of Representatives, but the House Committee on Elections refuses
...................................to seat him because he is African American
.......................Opelousas Massacre in LA: approx. 300 African Americans killed
.......................Fort Laramie Treaty ends war along the Bozeman Trail; US abandons forts and grants lands in WY,
...................................MT, and SD to the Lakota Indians
.......................Washita Massacre of Cheyenne in OK by Gen. George Armstrong Custer's 7th US Cavalry; 30
...................................Cheyenne, mostly women and children, are murdered
.......................AL introduces a segreagated public school system
.......................1st college for African Americans, Lincoln University, founded
.......................Meat packing plant opens in Chicago, operated by P.D. Armour
.......................1st Decoration Day celebrations, honoring Civil War dead (later renamed Memorial Day)
.......................Olmsted and Vaux design the 1st "parkway" in Brooklyn, a landscaped drive for pleasure vehicles
.......................Skeleton of Cro-Magnon man found in France by Louis Lartet
.......................Louisa May Alcott, Little Women; Elizabeth Keckley, Behind the Scenes Or, Thirty Years a Slave and Four
...................................Years in the White House

1869................Ulysses S. Grant inaugurated 18th US President
.......................John Wesley Powell leads 1st recorded voyage through the Grand Canyon
.......................Completion of transcontinental RR: golden spike in UT at Promontory Point
.......................WY becomes 1st state to grant voting rights to women
.......................1st African American diplomat: Ebenezer Don Carlos Bassett appointed minister to Haiti
.......................Knights of Labor union founded
.......................1st Vatican Council: Cardinal Manning advocates a definition of papal infallibility
.......................Potter's Field, largest public burying ground in US, established on Hart Island in NY Harbor
.......................Frances Harper, Moses: A Story of the Nile; J.S. Mill, On the Subjection of Women

1870................d. Robert E. Lee
.......................John D. Rockefeller founds Standard Oil Co.
.......................UT Territorial government grants women the right to vote
.......................1st African American Senator, Hiram Revels of MS, serves one year (fills the former Confederate
...................................President Jefferson Davis's seat). Between 1870 and 1901, 8 Southern states (LA, MS, AL,
...................................FL, GA, SC, NC, and VA) will have at least one African American in Congress
.......................1st African American House member, Joseph Rainey of South Carolina
.......................15th Amendment guarantees African American males (and all adult males) the right to vote
.......................CA court rules in White v. Flood that an African-American child may not attend a white school, setting
...................................a legal precedent for school segregation
.......................Union Pacific RR hires Chinese laborers for $32.50 a month. Whites (who are paid $52 a month for
...................................the same work) claim the Chinese immigrants are competing unfairly for jobs, leading to racial
...................................conflicts
.......................Piegan Massacre: 200 Piegan Indians, mostly elderly, women, and children, are murderd by US cavalry
...................................troops on a raid to the wrong camp; a cover-up conspiracy quickly ensues
.......................Experimental air-driven subway opens in NY, the Beach Pneumatic Transit
.......................Frank Scott publishes The Art of Beautifying Suburban Home Grounds of Small Extent, creating American
...................................lawn culture
.......................Washington Canal in DC closed and moved underground, changing the topography of the National Mall
.......................M Street High School established in DC; 1st permanent HS for African Americans
.......................Bret Harte, The Luck of Roaring Camp

1871................Great Fire of Chicago decimates the 2nd largest US city, killing over 300 people and leaving approx.
...................................100,000 homeless, and 2,024 acres burned
.......................P.T. Barnam opens his circus, “"The Greatest Show on Earth,"”in Brooklyn
.......................Jehovah's Witnesses founded by Charles T. Russell
.......................Alexander "Boss" Sheperd inaugrates city-wide public works projects in DC to pave streets, improve
...................................hygiene, etc.
......................Construction begins on the Old Executive Office Building (through 1888), designed by Alfred B. Mullet
......................John Burroughs, Wake Robin

1872................US General Amnesty Act pardons most ex-Confederates
.......................Yellowstone Act establishes 1st national park
......................."Buffalo Bill"”Cody awarded Congressional Medal of Honor for his service as a scout in Gen. Philip
...................................Sheridan's 4-year campaign against the Cheyenne
.......................Susan B. Anthony casts a ballot in the presidential election, and is brought to trial and found guilty,
...................................she refuses to pay a $100 fine, and the judge refuses to imprison her, thereby preventing her
...................................from appealing to a higher court; it will not be until 1820 that US women will be granted a
...................................legal right to vote
.......................Victoria Woodhull, 1st woman to run for US President
.......................One-quarter of the city of Boston burns in massive fire
.......................Metropolitan Museum of Art opens in NYC
.......................Central Market, originally built in 1801 in DC, replaced with a modern brick building with better
...................................ventilation and light; this will stand on Pennsylvania Ave. through 1931, when it is replaced
...................................by the National Archives
.......................Frances Harper, Sketches of Southern Life

1873................Cable cars introduced in San Francisco by inventor Andrew Hallidie
.......................Color photographs 1st developed
.......................Gunsmith firm of E. Remington and Sons begins to produce typewriters, 1st invented by Christopher
............................... I. Sholes
.......................Levi Strauss and Jacob Davis develop blue jeans for use by gold prospectors in the American West
.......................Emily Dickinson meets Thomas Wentworth Higginson
.......................Dr. Gerhard Hansen of Norway discovers the bacteria that causes leprosy
.......................Mark Twain and Charles Dudley Warner, The Gilded Age

1874................b. Amy Lowell
.......................b. Gertrude Stein
.......................Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children founded in NY by E.T. Gerry
.......................1st American zoo established in Philadelphia
.......................US Capitol grounds, designed by Olmsted, completed
.......................Immigrants from Russia settle in KS and bring with them “"Turkey Red" wheat, a drought-resistant
...................................strain that eventually transforms the “"Great American Desert" into the “"nation's breadbasket"”
.......................Joseph Glidden patents barbed wire; its use transforms the Plains
.......................Gen. Custer announces discovery of gold in the Black Hills; a stampede of fortune hunters invade
...................................the most sacred part of Lakota territory
.......................William H. Jackson photographs Anasazi cliff dwellings at Mesa Verde, CO
.......................Georgetown University 1st major university to appoint an African American President: Rev. Patrick
...................................Francis Healy
.......................Major fire in textile mill in Fall River, MA kills 23, begins debates about fire escapes and other safety
...................................measures; 2nd major fire in city of Chicago in 3 years decimates the city
.......................E. Remington & Sons, a firearms manufacturer, patents a typewriter
.......................DC residents stripped of voting rights
.......................1st impressionist exhibition in Paris

1875................1st African American to serve full term as Senator, Blanche Kelso Bruce of MS
.......................Civil Rights Act promises equal access to public accomodations
.......................TN aduopts 1st "Jim Crow" segregation law in the South; other states soon follow
.......................Clinton massacre: 20 African Americans killed in MS
.......................2 women's colleges founded: Smith and Wellesley
.......................Pinkerton agents fire-bomb the James family farm in MO in an unsuccessful attempt to kill the
...................................James Gang, notorious for robbing banks and railroads
.......................Dr. S. Weir Mitchell begins prescribing rest cures for "hysterical" female patients with "nervous
...................................diseases"
.......................Minute Man National Historic Park opens in Concord, MA
.......................Thomas Eakins, The Gross Clinic; James Abbott McNeill Whistler, Nocturne in Black and Gold
...................................(The Falling Rocket)

.......................Mark Twain, The Adventures of Tom Sawyer

1876................CO admitted as 38th state
.......................Battle of the Little Bighorn, aka Custer's Last Stand: 263 US troops defeated by several thousand
...................................Lakota, Arapaho, and Cheyenne warriors; Sitting Bull leads remaining Lakotas to safety
...................................in Canada
.......................Race riots in SC
.......................World's Fair held in Philadelphia
.......................Alexander Graham Bell patents the telephone
.......................Johns Hopkins University opens in Baltimore, contains the 1st real graduate school in US
.......................Reformatory for juvenile offenders founded in NY
.......................Bradley, Voorhees & Day manufacture 1st union suits, "an improvement in combined undershirt
...................................and drawers"; this company would later become synonymous with men's undergarments,
...................................called BVDs

1877................Rutherford B. Hayes inaugurated 19th US President; wins by a single electoral vote in a hotly
...................................contested election; detractors call him “"His Fraudulency"
.......................End of Reconstruction: withdrawal of Federal troops from the South; end of Federal commitment
...................................to civil right enforcement until the middle of the 20th c.; Democrats regain control of state
...................................legislatures throughout the South and pass laws retricting voting rights
.......................Crazy Horse surrenders to Gen. George Crook in NE; Congress repeals the Fort Laramie Treaty
...................................and claims Lakota lands (including the Black Hills)
.......................Chief Joseph of the Nez Percé surrenders after 4-month retreat in which he eluded capture
...................................repeatedly. Gives famous surrender speech: “"From where the sun now stands I will fight
...................................no more forever"
.......................1st African American graduate of West Point, Henry O. Flipper
.......................Frederick Douglass 1st African American successfully confirmed by US Senate to government
...................................position (US Marshall to District of Columbia, nominated by Pres. Hayes)
.......................An estimated 40,000 African-Americans migrate from Southern states to KS
.......................Dinosaur remains found by workers building a railroad at Como Bluff in WY set off a national obsession
...................................with archeology
.......................1st public telephones
.......................James Tyng of Harvard develops 1st catcher's mask for baseball
........................H. H. Richardson, Trinity Church, Boston
.......................Thomas Eakins, William Rush Carving His Allegorical Figure of the Schuylkill River

1878................In Reynolds v. US, the Supreme Court rejects a Mormon's challenge to a federal law banning bigamy
...................... Thomas Edison patents phonograph
.......................A.A. Pope manufactures 1st bicycles in US
.......................Congress creates a municipal corporation form of government for DC under the "Organic Act"
.......................Henry James, Daisy Miller

1879................Women permitted to practice law before the Supreme Court
.......................Founding of Radcliffe College, the “"Harvard Annex" for women
.......................1st students, 84 Lakota children, arrive at US Indian Training and Industrial School in Carlisle, PA,
...................................which becomes the model for 24 more schools over the next 2 decades, designed to
...................................Americanize Indians through forced acculturation, under the auspices of the US Dept. of the
...................................Interior
.......................Susette Le Flesche (Inshta Theumba) begins lecture tour for Native American rights
.......................Mary Baker Eddy becomes pastor of Church of Christ, Scientist in Boston
.......................Electric lighting installed in the Capitol, Washington, DC
.......................Ferdinand Cheval begins constructing the Palais Ideal at Hauterives, Drome, France
.......................Henrik Ibsen, A Doll's House

1880................Thomas Edison patents electric light bulb
.......................Andrew Carnegie develops 1st large steel furnace
.......................Canned fruits and vegetables 1st appear in stores
.......................Chinese Exclusion Act: places strict limits on immigration and naturalization
.......................KS becomes 1st Prohibition state
.......................American Surgical Assn. founded
.......................1st newspaper photograph printed in the NY Daily Graphic

1881................James A. Garfield inaugurated 20th US President; assassinated 4 months later
.......................Chester A. Arthur inaugurated 21st US President
.......................Clara Barton forms the Red Cross
.......................Last big cattle drive ends the era of the open range in the American west
.......................Billy the Kid, charged with over 21 murders, killed by Sheriff Pat Garrett in NM
.......................Showdown at OK Corral: Clantons killed by Deputy Marshall Wyatt Earp
.......................Tuskegee Institute founded by Booker T. Washington as a vocational training institute for African
...................................Americans
.......................Segregation on public transportation becomes law in TN
.......................1st hand operated telephone switchboards introduced
.......................Helen Hunt Jackson, A Century of Dishonor, 1st detailed examination of the government's treatment
...................................of Indians, shocks the nation with proof of broken treaties and brutality

1882................Chinese Exclusion Act: Congress completely prohibits immigration from China and naturalization
...................................of Chinese immigrants in the US for a period of 10 years
.......................Edmunds Law: polygamy made a federal crime punishable by up to 5 years in prison; many Mormon
...................................leaders go into hiding
.......................Dr. Robert Koch discovers the cause of tuberculosis while studying the disease in Africa
.......................Jesse James killed by Robert Ford

1883................US Supreme Court overturns Civil Rights Act of 1875
...................... Brooklyn Bridge completed over East River and publicly inaugurated May 24 with fireworks and
...................................speeches
.......................Northern Pacific RR line completed
.......................Most US towns switch to Standard Railroad Time, with time remaining constant within geographic
...................................zones
.......................1st skyscraper built in Chicago, 10 stories
.......................Civil Service Law
.......................Dr. Robert Koch discovers the cause of cholera on a research trip to Egypt and India
.......................US frontiersman W.F. “"Buffalo Bill"” Cody organizes his “Wild West Show
.......................PA passes a law legalizing dissection of human corpses by medical students, but only those corpses
...................................buried at state expense (because of the poverty of the deceased)
.......................Robert Louis Stevenson, Treasure Island

1884................International Meridian Conference held in Washington, DC establishes prime meridian at Greenwich,
...................................with longitude counted 180 degrees east and west from that point
.......................Washington Monument completed, Washington, DC (begun in 1848)
.......................Work starts on Anoni Gudi's Sagrada Familia in Barcelona, Spain
.......................John Singer Sargent, Madame Pierre Gautreau (Madame X)
.......................Mark Twain, Huckleberry Finn

1885................Grover Cleveland inaugurated 22nd US President; only Pres. to marry while in office
.......................Ulysses S. Grant's funeral procession through Manhattan is 7 miles long
.......................Founding of Bryn Mawr College for women
.......................George Eastman manufactures coated photographic paper
.......................1st linotype printers developed
.......................1st modern skyscraper in DC, the Baltimore Sun Building on F St. NW, includes city's 1st passenger
...................................elevator, and combines a cast iron and steel frame with masonry load-bearing walls.  z
...................................Designed by Alfred B. Mullett

1886................d. Emily Dickinson
.......................b. Hilda Doolittle (H.D.)
.......................Statue of Liberty constructed; dedicated by Pres. Cleveland on Bedloe's Island in NY harbor.
...................................Created in 1884 by French sculptor Frederic Auguste Bartholde, it was shipped in 214
...................................crates to the US and reassembled by a group of American engineers under Gen. Charles
...................................Stone; the base of the monument contains a poem by Emma Lazarus, which states,
..................................."Give me your tired, your poor, your huddled masses yearning to breathe free..."
.......................Legalization of public segregation
.......................Carollton Massacre: 20 African Americans killed in MS
.......................Surrender of Apache chief Geronimo to US troops in AZ after over a decade of guerilla warfare;
...................................tribe removed to FL
.......................American Federation of Labor founded by Samuel Gompers, a coalition of skill-workers' unions
.......................Andrew Carnegie begins endowing public libraries in citys and towns across the US (through 1917);
...................................a total of 1,689 libraries in 1,421 communities would eventually be built with Carnegie funds
.......................Hydroelectric installations begun at Niagara Falls
.......................1st automobiles with internal combustion engines
.......................The Dominion Bridge Company of Canada hires and trains Kahnawake Mohawks as high altitude
...................................riveters; over the next several generations, Mohawks will dominate the high steel industry
...................................throughout the US, building nearly all the monumental structures of greater NY including the
...................................Empire State Blg., George Washington Bridge, UN General Assembly and World Trade Center
.......................Coca-Cola introduced, developed by John S. Pemberton and containing extracts of the coca plant
.......................Pres. Ulysses S. Grant attends the dedication of the first synogogue in Washington, DC, Adas Israel
.......................Linotype process 1st introduced by Ottmar Mergenthaler, a high-speed mechanical means of setting
...................................type that will open a new era in mass communications
.......................William Harnett, The Old Violin; Auguste Rodin, The Burgers of Calais; George Seurat, La Grande Jatte
.......................Arthur Rimbaud, Les Illuminations

1887................b. Marianne Moore
.......................Dawes Severalty Act: outlaws communal land ownership by Indian tribes, resulting in loss of tribal
...................................lands to non-Indians
.......................Segregation in public transportation becomes law in FL
.......................Congress passes the Interstate Commerce Act, first law to regulate private business by the federal government
.......................1st production of radio shortwaves
.......................Catholic University of America in DC established
.......................Eadweard Muybridge, Animal Locomotion published, with 781 multiple-image plates

1888................"The Great Die-Up": blizzards devastate cattle herds of the northern Plains. The worst blizzard, also
..................................called the Children's Blizzard, on Jan. 12, kills hundreds, mostly children on their way home
..................................from school, and is the deadliest blizzard ever to hit the Plains States of Nebraska, the Dakotas,
..................................and Minnesota
.......................Segregation in public transportation becomes law in MS
.......................1st simple handheld camera produced by George Eastman
.......................Washington Monument in DC opened to the public
.......................National Geographic magazine founded

1889................Benjamin Harrison inaugurated 23rd US President
.......................ND admitted as 39th state
.......................SD admitted as 40th state
.......................MN admitted as 41st state
.......................WA admitted as 42nd state
.......................Ghost Dance practiced by Wovoka, a Paiute holy man, and followers; spiritual revival among
...................................Indians
.......................Pres. Harrison authorizes opening unoccupied lands in Indian Territory to white settlement; OK
...................................Land Rush transforms almost 2 million acres of tribal land
.......................Johnstown Flood in PA; most devastating flood in US history
.......................American University established in DC
.......................Johns Hopkins Hospital opens in Baltimore; becomes the US's pioneering teaching hospital
.......................Passage of the Zoological Bill calls for the creation of the National Zoo in DC
.......................Segregation in public transportation becomes law in TX
.......................Public pay phones invented by William Gray
.......................Eiffel Tower in Paris opens; architect, Gustav Eiffel
.......................Mark Twain, A Connecticut Yankee in King Arthur's Court; W.B. Yeats, The Wanderings of Oisin

1890................ID admitted as 43rd state
.......................WY admitted as 44th state
.......................Congress enacts the Sherman Anti-Trust Act
.......................Wounded Knee: Federal troops massacre 350 Lakotas on the Pine Ridge Reservation
.......................Segregation in public transportation becomes law in LA
.......................White supremacist elected governor of SC, “"Pitchfork Ben" Tillman
.......................Yosemite National Park established at the urging of naturalist John Muir as 3rd US national park,
...................................preserving 1500 square miles of wilderness
.......................1st moving picture shows appear in NY
.......................Global influenza epidemics
.......................Rubber gloves used for 1st time in surgery, at Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore
.......................1st entirely steel-framed building erected in Chicago
.......................1st use of the electric chair to execute a criminal; William Kemmler executed in Auburn, NY
.......................Electric lights installed in The White House
.......................Daughters of American Revolution founded in DC
.......................Passage of the Rock Creek Park Bill perpetually secures public park land in DC
.......................1st edition of Emily Dickinson's Poems (posth.)
.......................Jacob Riis, How the Other Half Lives

1891................Segregation in public transportation becomes law in AL, KY, AR, and GA
.......................End of Indian Wars
.......................Congress passes an Immigration Act which expands the types of immigrants that would be barred
...................................from entering the US, ncluding "idiots, insane persons, paupers or persons likely to become
...................................public charges, persons suffering from a loathsome or dangerous disease, persons who have
...................................been convicted of a felony or other infamous crime or misdemeanor involving moral turpitude,
...................................polygamists."  Immigration was placed entirely in the control of the federal government, and
...................................those excluded were not allowed the right to appeal their decisions in court.  Instead, all
...................................appeals were made through the Treasury Department.
.......................The grounds of the Biltmore Estate completed in NC, largest private property in the US, designed
...................................by Olmsted; incorporates the 1st experiements with scientific forestry in the US
.......................Widespread famine in Russia
.......................Earthquake in Japan kills 10,000
.......................Paul Gaugin emigrates to Tahiti to paint
.......................1st escalator introduced by Jesse Reno as a ride at a Coney Island amusement park
.......................Thomas Eakins, Miss Amelia van Buren; Mary Cassatt, The Bath; Augustus Saint-Gaudens, Adams
...................................Memorial, Rock Creek Cemetery, Washington, DC
.......................Mary E. Wilkins Freeman, A New England Nun & Other Stories; Oscar Wilde, The Picture of
...................................Dorian Gray


1892................d. Walt Whitman
.......................Congress extends the Chinese Exclusion Act for a second 10 years, adding a requirement that all
...................................Chinese workers in the US register or face deportation
.......................Homer Plessy refused seating in a "white" section of the East Louisiana RR, sues; Plessy v. Ferguson
...................................reinforces "separate but equal" doctrine
.......................Dawes Act: 2 million acres of Crow tribal land opened to white settlers in MT
.......................John Muir founds the Sierra Club
.......................Adirondack State Park created to "be forever kept as wild forest lands"; largest park in the
..................................contiguous US
.......................1st automatic telephone switchboard introduced
.......................1st collapsible metal tubes for packaging toothpaste devisted by Connecticut doctor Washington W.
...................................Sheffield
.......................Fingerprints used for 1st time in murder conviction, of mother of two boys killed in Argentina
.......................Walt Whitman, final version of Leaves of Grass (the "deathbed edition"); Frances Harper, Iola
...................................Leroy, or Shadows Uplifted
; Charlotte Perkins Gilman, The Yellow Wallpaper

1893................Grover Cleveland re-elected; inaugurated 24th US President; only Pres. to leave the White House
...................................then return for a 2nd term after 4 years'’ absence
.......................HI proclaimed a republic; briefly annexed to US
.......................World's Columbian Exposition in Chicago: Designed by architects Daniel Burnham and Charles McKim,
...................................sculptor Augustus Saint-Gaudens, and landscape architect Frederick Law Olmsted Jr.;
...................................beginning of the City Beautiful Movement
.......................Interior of Ford's Theater in DC collapses, killing 22
.......................Yoga gains its 1st following in US when Swami Vivekananda visits Chicago for a world religions
...................................conference
.......................Henry Ford builds his 1st car
.......................1st zipper developed by American inventor Whitcomb Judson
.......................Edvard Munch, The Scream

1894................Pullman Company strike causes national transportation crisis; led by Eugene V. Debs
.......................Swiss doctor Alexandre-Emile Yersin discovers the cause of the Plague in Hong Kong
.......................Frances Harper, The Sparrow's Fall & Other Poems

1895................Race riot in New Orleans; whites attack African American workers; 6 killed
.......................Booker T. Washington delivers his famous “"Atlanta Compromise" speech
.......................National Baptist Convention formed; largest African American religious denomination in US
.......................Xrays 1st developed by German doctor Wilhelm Konrad Roentgen: major medical diagnostic tool
.......................Louis Pasteur develops rabies vaccine
.......................Auguste and Louis Lumiere invent motion-picture camera
.......................Oscar Wilde's unsuccessful libel suit against Marquis of Queensberry
.......................Ida B. Wells publishes A Red Record, an in-depth study of lynching
.......................Motion picture technology developed in Paris and New Jersey
.......................Gettysburg National Military Park opens in Gettysburg, PA
.......................Richard Morris Hunt, Biltmore, Asheville, NC; McKim, Mead & White, Boston Public Library
.......................W. B. Yeats, Poems; Frances Harper, Atlanta Offering and Martyr of Alabama

1896................UT admitted as 45th state
.......................Plessy v. Ferguson Supreme Court decision sanctions Jim Crow segregation laws, ruling “"separate
...................................but equal" facilities satisfy 14th Amendment guarantees
.......................Klondike Gold Rush, Bonanza Creek, AK
.......................National Association of Colored Women founded to combat racism and provide aid to
...................................improverished African Americans; Mary Church Terrell is President, the organization's
...................................motto is "lifting as we climb"
.......................George Washington Carver appointed director of agricultural research at Tuskegee Institute
.......................1st modern Olympics, Athens
.......................New York Times Magazine 1st published
.......................Nobel Prizes established for annual recognition in physics, physiology and medicine, chemistry,
...................................literature, and peace
.......................Sarah Orne Jewett, Country of the Pointed Firs; Paul Laurence Dunbar, Lyrics of a Lowly Life; E.A.
...................................Robinson, The Torrent and the Night Before

1897................b. Louise Bogan
.......................William McKinley inaugurated as 25th US President
.......................Tidal Basin in DC completed
.......................General Grant National Memorial (aka Grant's Tomb) dedicated in NYC, designed by John Duncan;
...................................Shaw Memorial, commemorating the 54th Massachusetts regiment of African American
...................................Civil War soldiers, dedicated in Boston, designed by Augustus Saint-Gaudens
.......................Library of Congress opens in a dedicated building in Washington, DC
.......................1st comic strip in US, “"Katzenjammer Kids," by Rudolph Dirks
.......................Edmond Rostand, Cyrano de Bergerac

1898................Spanish American War: imperialism and overseas acquisitions of Guam, Samoa, the Philippines,
...................................Hawaii, Puerto Rico; sinking of the Maine; Americans destroy Spanish fleet at Manila;
...................................Treaty of Paris; US emerges as global power
.......................Segregation in public transportation becomes law in SC
.......................Race riot in NC; 8 African Americans killed
.......................Marie Curie discovers radium
.......................George Eastman patents Kodak box camera, 1st portable, easy-to-use camera
.......................Charlotte Perkins Gilman, Women and Economics; Henry James, The Turn of the Screw; Thomas
...................................Hardy, Wessex Poems; Oscar Wilde, The Ballad of Reading Gaol

1899................Philippines demands independence from US
.......................Butch Cassidy and the Sundance Kid commit a series of bank and train robberies across the West,
...................................then flee to South America in 1901
.......................Segregation in public transportation becomes law in NC
.......................Martha Place, 1st woman to die in the electric chair
.......................Aspirin tablets developed by Bayer Co.: the most widely used drug on earth, it is also among the
...................................least expensive, and most generally useful for a wide range of symptoms (including
...................................control of pain, reduction of fever, and suppression of join inflammation)
.......................Law enacted to restrict height of all private structures in DC to no higher than the Washington Monument
...................................(555 feet)
.......................Kate Chopin, The Awakening; Oscar Wilde, The Importance of Being Ernest

1900................US claims Wake Island, an important cable link between HI and Manila
.......................Yaqui Indians in TX proclaim independence from Mexico
.......................Segregation in public transportation becomes law in VA
.......................GA passes a law segreagating public parks
.......................US Census shows that 90% of African Americans live in the South
.......................Brigham Roberts denied seat in US House of Representatives for practicing polygamy
.......................US Yellow Fever Commission begins research in Cuba to discover the cause of the disease
.......................Australia becomes a Commonwealth
.......................William Phelps Eno 1st suggest placing stop signs at road intersections
.......................1st production of affordable portable cameras, the Kodak Brownie (sold for a dollar each)
.......................Frances Harper, Poems; Sigmund Freud, The Interpretation of Dreams; Joseph Conrad, Lord Jim;
...................................Theodore Dreiser, Sister Carrie; Frank Baum, The Wonderful World of Oz; Beatrix Potter,
...................................The Tale of Peter Rabbit


1901................d. Queen Victoria
.......................Pres. McKinley assassinated by Leon Czolgosz at Pan-American Exposition in Buffalo, NY
.......................Theodore Roosevelt inaugurated 26th US President; at 42, he is the youngest Pres. in the nation's history
.......................Cuban Convention makes the country a US protectorate
.......................Roosevelt incites controversy after inviting Booker T. Washington to dine at White House; race riots
...................................in New Orleans
.......................Congress confers US citizenship on all Indians residing in OK Territory
.......................African Americans found enslaved in parts of SC
.......................Last African American congressman for 28 years, George H. White, ends his term
.......................AL constitution disenfranchises African Americans by requiring literacy tests and proof that one's
...................................grandfather was eligible to vote
.......................Supreme Court rules Puerto Ricans do not qualify for US citizenship
.......................J.P. Morgan founds U.S. Steel Corp.
.......................Cadillac Company founded in Detroit
.......................Spindletop oil gushes in TX, opens a century when “"black gold" will play a vital role in the economy
...................................of the American west
.......................Senate Park Commission established for public lands in DC
.......................Marconi's 1st wireless signal from England to Newfoundland
.......................Annie Edson Taylor, 1st person to survive a trip over Niagara Falls in a barrel
.......................1st Nobel Prizes awarded in Literature
.......................Booker T. Washington, Up From Slavery

1902................US Reclamation Act
.......................US acquires perpetual control over Panama Canal
.......................Oriental Exclusion Act extended
.......................Coal Strike in US (May-Oct.)
.......................From 1902 through 1928, no African Americans serve in Congress, in a dramatic rollback of civil rights
.......................McMillan Plan in DC: defines the monumental core and park system for the city, extending L'Enfant's
...................................original design of 1791 and serving as a blueprint for the capitol's continuing development
.......................1st Cadillac cars manufactured
.......................Joseph Horn and Frank Hardart introduce the Automat, a low-cost, self-serve restaurant
.......................Willis Carrier invents air-conditioning
.......................Arthur Korn of Germany develops process to transmit photos by wire
.......................Carnegie Library completed in DC; serves as model for libraries across US
.......................Paul Laurence Dunbar, The Sport of the Gods; Owen Wister, The Virginian; Rudyard Kipling, Just-so
................................... Stories


1903................Wright Brothers fly 1st powered aircraft at Kitty Hawk, NC
.......................AK frontier settled
.......................Creation of US Dept. of Commerce and Labor
.......................Women granted the vote in CT
.......................Henry Ford founds Ford Motor Co.
.......................1st coast-to-coast crossing of the American continent by car, in 65 days
.......................Pepsi-Cola Co. patents its soft drink
.......................1st "safety razor" developed by American traveling salesman King Gillette
.......................Pres. Roosevelt closes PO in Indianola MS for refusing Minnie Cox, an African American
...................................postmistress
.......................Pierre and Marie Curie and Henri Becquerel awarded Nobel Prize in Physics for work in
...................................radioactivity; Marie Curie is 1st woman to win a Nobel Prize
.......................Emmeline Pankhurst founds National Women's Social and Political Union in England
......................."The Great Train Robbery," 1st movie western
........................Augustus and Louis Lumiere patent 1st color photography process
.......................Jack London, The Call of the Wild, W.E.B. DuBois, The Souls of Black Folk

1904................US acquires Panama Canal Zone; begins work on canal
.......................MD joins other southern states disenfranchising African Americans, segregating public
...................................transportation
.......................Most deadly peacetime maritime disaster in US: steamboat General Slocum catches fire
...................................and sinks in Manhattan's East River; over 1,000 die
.......................American Socialist Party nominates Eugene Debs for Pres.
.......................Bethune-Cookman College founded in FL
.......................NY policeman arrests woman for smoking a cigarette in public
.......................Helen Keller graduates from Radcliffe College
.......................1st American Olympics held in St. Louis, along with World Exhibition
.......................American Academy of Arts and Letters founded
.......................Robert Scott lands on the Great Antarctic Plateau
.......................1st thermos developed by Scottish physicist James Dewar
.......................1st ice cream cones and peanut better introduced at the World's Fair in St. Louis
.......................1st color photograph published in London Daily Illustrated Mirror
.......................James Barrie, Peter Pan

1905................Albert Einstein formulates Special Theory of Relativity; establishes law of mass-energy
...................................equivalence; creates Brownian theory of motion; and formulates the photon theory of light
......................."Big Bill"” Haywood founds the Industrial Workers of the World, a socialist organization promoting
...................................unions (the “"Wobblies")
.......................Niagara Movement founded, African American intellectuals and activists meet
.......................Lewis and Clark Centennial opens in OR
.......................1st law creating a state presidential primary, in WI
.......................Alberta and Saskatchewan become Canadian provinces
.......................1st regular cinema established in Pittsburgh
.......................1st neon signs
.......................1st rotary dial telephones
.......................Robert Abbott begins publishing The Chicago Defender, the most important African-American newspaper
...................................during Segregation and one of the country's leading proponents of The Great Migration, the
...................................post-WWI migration of African Americans from the rural south to northern cities
.......................Fauvism: Matisse, Derain, Rouault paint in wild, bright colors
.......................Picasso begins Rose Period paintings
.......................Edith Wharton, The House of Mirth

1906................Theodore Roosevelt awarded Nobel Peace Prize for mediated the Russo-Japanese War
.......................San Francisco earthquake: over 3,000 die; downtown leveled with 497 city blocks destroyed; martial law
...................................declared
.......................San Francisco school board orders segregation of all Asian children
.......................Roosevelt becomes 1st Pres. to make official trips outside US: to Puerto Rico, Panama
.......................Standard Oil indicted under Sherman Anti-trust Act
.......................Joseph Smith, Pres. of the Mormon Church, charged with polygamy after the birth of his 43rd child,
...................................born to his 5th wife; he pleads guilty and pays $300 fine
.......................African American soldiers riot in TX against segregation; Pres. Roosevelt discharges 3 companies as a
...................................result
.......................AL passes a law segregating street cars
.......................Race riot in Atlanta; 12 killed
.......................NY clergy protest Bronx zoo display of a pygmy man in a cage with apes
.......................Birth of modern Pentecostalism: Willaim J. Seymour, the son of former slaves, begins preaching in
...................................a dilapidated building on Azusa Street in Los Angeles (the Azusa Street Revival)
.......................NY police begin using fingerprints for identification
.......................Revelations of conditions in Chicago stockyards contained in Upton Sinclair's novel The Jungle leads
...................................to the passage of the US Pure Food and Drugs Act
.......................Madame C.J. Walker establishes a hair care business for African American women, which will eventually
...................................make her a millionaire
.......................Willis Carrier patnets his "Apparatus for Treating Air," the 1st commercial air conditioner
......................."Typhoid Mary" identified and incarcerated for unknowingly spreading typhoid
.......................Norwegian explorer Roald Amundssen traverses the Northwest Passage and determines the position
...................................of the magnetic North Pole
.......................Finland is 1st country to give women universal suffrage
.......................Ruth St. Denis introduces modern dance

.......................Upton Sinclair, The Jungle

1907................OK admitted as 46th state
.......................Panic of 1907: run on banks, stopped by J.P. Morgan's importation of $100 million in gold from Europe
.......................Pres. Roosevelt bars Japanese immigration to US
.......................Segregation in public transportation becomes law in OK
.......................New laws stipulate that all immigrants to US must be checked to ensure they are free of contagious
...................................diseases
.......................2nd Sunday in May established in Philadelphia as Mother's Day
.......................Ivan Pavlov studies conditioned reflexes
.......................American inventor James Murray Spangler develops the vaccuum cleaner
.......................Ziegfield's Folly's opens, a revue of bathing beauties (runs through 1931)
.......................Union Station opens in Washington DC; marble statues of naked Roman soldiers lining the roof cause a
...................................scandal, and enlongated shields are quickly added
.......................Picasso, “Demoiselles d'Avignon, beginning of Cubism; Alfred Stieglitz, The Steerage

1908................Ford Motor Co. produces 1st Model T; 1st assembly line process splits production into 84 distinct steps;
...................................beginning of mass production
.......................Berea College v. KY: US Supreme Court rules segregation in private educational institutions is OK
.......................Race riot in Springfield IL
.......................General Motors Corp. founded
.......................Isadora Duncan becomes popular interpreter of dance
.......................Subway opens in NY linking Brooklyn and Manhattan
.......................Congress passes law regulating child labor in DC
.......................Fountain pens become popular
.......................Bakelite invented in US by L.H. Baekeland, commercial manufacture in 1909 marks beginning of the
...................................Plastic Age
.......................Jack Johnson is 1st African American world heavyweight boxing champion
.......................Ashcan School painters begin exhibiting works of urban realism
.......................Albert Von Tilzer and Jack Norworth copyright the popular song, "Take Me Out to the Ballgame"
.......................Gertrude Stein, Three Lives; Kenneth Grahame, The Wind in the Willows; Lucy M. Montgomery,
...................................Anne of Green Gables
; Ezra Pound, A Lume Spento; W.B. Yeats., Collected Works

1909................William Howard Taft inaugurated 2th US President
.......................1st US Army airplane purchased
.......................NAACP founded to fight for full equality for African Americans
.......................Dawes Act opens 700,000 acres of former tribal land in WA, ID, and MN to white settlement
.......................Admiral Robert E. Peary claims to reach the North Pole; travels with African American explorer
...................................Matthew Hensen; Dr. Frederick Cook claims he preceded Peary and Hensen by one year;
...................................Congress mediates dispute and favors Peary's claim; now it is thought that both claims are
...................................unlikely
.......................Sigmund Freud lectures in US on psychoanalysis
.......................Greene and Greene, Gamble House, Pasadena, CA
.......................George Bellows, Stag at Sharkey's
.......................Gertrude Stein, Three Lives

1910................d. Florence Nightingale
.......................Mann Act passed by Congress; prohibits transportation of women across state lines for “"immoral
...................................purposes"
.......................US law bars immigration of “"criminals, paupers, anarchists, and carriers of disease"
.......................Baltimore enacts city ordinance designating boundaries of white and African American
...................................neighborhoods. Becomes the model for similar laws in TX, NC, KY, VA, OK, and MS.
...................................Declared unconstitutional in 1917
.......................National Urban League founded
.......................Beginning of great migration of approx. 2 million souther African Americans to northern cities
......................."The Big Blowup": in two days in August, massive forest fires in the Rockies and throughout the
...................................West burn approx. 3.25 million acres; US Forest Serivice sends in thousands to control
...................................fires; 78 firefighters killed
.......................1st Socialist Congressman: Victor Berger of WI
.......................Commission of Fine Arts formed in DC to implement the McMillan Plan; continues to approve
...................................all new buildings and monuments in the capital
.......................Baroness de Laroche becomes 1st woman to obtain a pilot's licence, in France
.......................Halley's Comet reappears
.......................Taft begins custom of Pres. tossing 1st ball at the beginning of baseball season
.......................Father's Day 1st celebrated in Spokane, WA
.......................The “"week-end" becomes popular in US
.......................Charles Kettering invents a self-starter for cars that fits under the hood and runs off a small storage
...................................battery; the first starters are installed in Cadillacs, eliminating the need for crank starters,
...................................and allowing women to start and drive cars on their own
.......................Height Limitation Act in DC: no buildings may be taller than the Washington Monument
.......................291 Gallery opened in NY by Alfred Stieglitz, exhibits modern art from US and Europe
.......................Post-Impressionist Exhibition in London organized by Roger Fry, shows works by Cezanne,
...................................Van Gogh, and Matisse
.......................McKim, Mead & White, Pennsylvania Station, New York; Frank Lloyd Wright, Robie House, Chicago
.......................1st publicaton of The Crisis, the crusading journal of the NAACP, edited by W.E.B. DuBois

1911................d. Frances E. W. Harper
.......................b. Elizabeth Bishop
.......................William Henry Lewis appointed assistant attorney general by Pres. Taft; 1st African American
...................................appointed to a White House sub-cabinet post
.......................National Urban League founded to help African Americans secure equal employment
.......................Triangle Shirtwaist Fire in NYC: 146 immigrant workers killed when fire breaks out and
...................................escape doors are locked; leads to the establishment of the International Ladies' Garment
...................................Workers Union
.......................1st Hollywood film studio opens, The Nestor Co.
.......................Construction begins on the Lincoln Memorial in DC
.......................1st center line installed on roads for traffic control, in MI
.......................Armistice ends Mexican Civil War
.......................Roald Amundsen of Norway reaches the South Pole
.......................Herman Rorschach, Swiss psychiatrist, develops ink blot tests
.......................Marie Curie wins second Nobel Prize in Medicine
.......................Edith Wharton, Ethan Frome

1912................b. May Sarton
.......................NM admitted as 47th state
.......................AZ admitted as 48th state
.......................Textile workers strike in Lawrence MA, showing the power of IWW
.......................Immigration law bars immigrants who are illiterate
.......................Sinking of the Titanic on her maiden voyage; 1,513 drowned
.......................F.W. Woolworth Company founded
.......................Olympic Games in Stockholm, Sweden: Jim Thorpe stripped of all gold medals and records
...................................after it is discovered he played semi-professional baseball in 1911
.......................1st successful parachute jump
.......................Piltdown Man Hoax: humanid remains believed to be 50,000 years old planted in England;
...................................hoax revealed in 1953
.......................Cherry trees, a gift from Japan, planted around the Tidal Basin, Washington, DC
.......................Poetry: A Magazine of Verse founded in Chicago
.......................James Weldon Johnson, The Autobiography of an Ex-Colored Man; Amy Lowell, A Dome
...................................of Many-Colored Glass


1913................b. Muriel Rukeyser
.......................Woodrow Wilson inaugurated 28th US President; wins electoral but not popular vote
.......................16th Amendment to the Constitution establishes the Income Tax
.......................Department of Labor created by US Congress
.......................Federal segregation of work places, rest rooms, and lunch rooms
.......................Alien Land Laws prohibit ownership of land by Asian immigrants
.......................5,000 American feminists, led by Alice Paul, march on Washington to demand votes for women
.......................Suffragette demonstrations in London; E. Pankhurst arrested for attempted bombing
.......................Mahatma Gandhi arrested, leader of Indian Passive Resistance Movement
.......................Grand Central Terminal opens in NY
.......................Ford Motor Co. establishes 1st assembly line
.......................Neils Bohr generates theory of atomic structure
.......................American College of Surgeons founded
.......................Panama Canal opens
.......................1st female magistrate sworn in in England
.......................1st crossword puzzles printed
.......................1st brassiere developed by American debutante Caresse Crosby
.......................Woolworth Building, designed by Cass Gilbert, opens in NY
......................."Star of Ethiopia" pageant presented at the National Emancipation Exposition in NY, depicts
...................................the history of people of African descent, produced by W.E.B. DuBois
.......................Armory Show introduces Post-Impressionism and Cubism in NY
.......................Nobel Prize for Literature to Rabindanath Tagore
.......................Willa Cather, O, Pioneers!; Thomas Mann, Death in Venice, D.H. Lawrence, Sons and Lovers;
...................................Robert Frost, A Boy's Will

1914................WWI breaks out in Europe, Archduke Francis Ferdinand of Austria assassinated in Sarajevo; war
...................................declared by Germany, Britain, Austria, Serbia, France, and Russia; Germans occupy
...................................Rheims; Battle of the Marne; First Battle of Ypres
.......................Telephone line installed between NY and San Francisco
.......................US Federal Trade Commission established to regulate interstate commerce
.......................Panama Canal completed after 36 years, and the deaths of 25,000 men
.......................Marcus Garvey founds the Universal Negro Improvement Assn. in Jamaica
.......................Paul Bunyan legend established with advertising pamphlet, Paul Bunyan and His Big Blue Ox,
...................................by W. B. Laughead, for the Red River Lumber Co.
.......................Construction begins on the Lincoln Memorial, Washington, DC
.......................Dr. Alexis Carrel performs 1st successful heart surgery on dog
.......................Robert Goddard begins experiments with rockets
.......................Ernest Shackleton leads Antarctic expedition
.......................Last known passenger pigeon, named Martha, dies in Cincinnati Zoo
.......................Marsden Hartley, Portrait of a German Officer
.......................James Joyce, Dubliners; Robert Frost, North of Boston; Gertrude Stein, Tender Buttons; W.B.
...................................Yeats, Responsibilities

1915................b. Margaret Walker
.......................Marianne Moore's 1st poems published in The Egoist and Poetry
.......................WWI: Italy enters war; Lusitania sunk by German submarine; German blockage of England;
...................................Anglo-French landings at Gallipoli; 1st Zeppelin attack on London; Czar Nicholas II takes
...................................over command of Russian army; at Second Battle of Ypres mustard gas is 1st used; 1st
...................................German Zeppelin attack on London
.......................Guinn v. US: US Supreme Court strikes down OK's "grandfather clause" voting restriction against
...................................African Americans
.......................Henry Ford develops farm tractor
.......................US Coast Guard established by Congress
.......................In a victory for labor unions, Congress enacts the Clayton Act, which limits the court injunctions
...................................against legal strikes, boycotts, and peaceful picketing
.......................SC passes a law segregating entrances and working facilities in factories
.......................Albert Einstein postulates General Theory of Relativity
.......................Margaret Sanger jailed for writing Family Limitation, 1st book on birth control
.......................1st transcontinental telephone call, by Alexander Graham Bell in NYC to Thomas A. Watson in
...................................San Francisco
.......................1st eletric traffic signal installed, in Cleveland
.......................2nd organization of Ku Klux Klan: receives charter from Fulton County, GA Superior Court and
...................................gains wide national membership that peaks in the 1920s
.......................Association for the Study of Negro Life and History established by Carter G. Woodson
.......................D.W. Griffith's film "The Birth of a Nation" promotes racist notions about lascivious Black men and
...................................the threat of their rise to power.  One of the most racist movies of all time, it depicts members
...................................of the Ku Klux Klan as heroes.  African Americans are portrayed by white actors in blackface.
.......................Raggedy Ann doll patented by Johnny Gruelle
.......................1st lipstick packaged in a slide-and-twist metal dispenser, designed by American inventor Maurice Levy
.......................1st Dadaist paintings created by Marcel Duchamp
.......................Franz Kafka, The Metamorphosis; Edgar Lee Masters, Spoon River Anthology; Somerset Maugham, Of
...................................Human Bondage
; Willa Cather, Song of the Lark; Ezra Pound, Cathay

1916................WWI: 1st Zeppelin raid on Paris; Battle of Verdun; Germany declares war on Portugal; Sinn Fein
...................................Easter Rebellion in Dublin; beginning of Allied Somme defensive; Italy declares war on
...................................Germany; British 1st use tanks on Western Front; gas masks and steel helmets introduced in
...................................German army; Battle of the Somme
.......................Child Labor Act
.......................Jeannette Rankin, 1st woman elected to Congress
.......................Domestic terrorism: attack by German saboteurs on Black Tom Island in New York harbor destroys
...................................ammunition for the war effort, as well as ships, warehouses, rail lines; causes $50 million worth
...................................of damage
.......................Margaret Sanger opens 1st birth control clinic in US
.......................National Park Service established under US Dept. of the Interior
.......................Pancho Villa invades NM; kills 17 Americans
.......................US purchases Danish West Indies (Virgin Islands) for $25 million
.......................Marcus Garvey arrives in US and establishes the Universal Negro Improvement Assn.
.......................Prohibition gains ground as 24 states vote against alcoholic beverages
.......................Law establishing 8 hour work day for RR workers prevents nationwide strike
.......................Albert Einstein's Theory of Relativity
.......................Dadaism movement founded in Zurich
.......................H.D., Sea Garden; Carl Sandburg, Chicago Poems; James Joyce, Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man;
...................................E.A. Robinson, The Man Against the Sky

1917................b. Gwendolyn Brooks
.......................WWI: Declaration of war on Germany ends US neutrality; food rationing in Germany and Britain;
...................................China enters war; Russian Revolution; Albanian independence proclaimed; Russian Black
...................................Sea fleet mutinies at Sebastopol; Balfour Declaration on Palestine; 1st tank battle at Cambrai;
...................................Finnish Republic proclaimed; Turks surrender Jerusalem; Allies execute Mata Hari as spy
.......................Race riot in East St. Louis, IL; approx. 200 African Americans killed
.......................Race riot in Houston; 12 killed; 18 African American soldiers later hanged for participating in riot
.......................NAACP protest in NY brings attention to lynchings, race riots, and denial of rights when 10,000 march
...................................silently down 5th Avenue
.......................Literacy requirements for US citizenship passed over Wilson's veto
.......................Prohibition of alcohol in DC passed; the Capital is seen as a "temperance proving ground" for what will,
...................................in 1919, become the 18th Amendment. Despite the ban, over 2,000 speakeasies flourish in the
...................................city, and enforcement is rare
.......................Jeannette Rankin is 1st woman to serve in Congress
.......................4 women arresting for picketing White House for women's suffrage; sentenced to 6 months in jail
.......................1st jazz recordings, by the white Original Dixieland Jazz Band
.......................Bobbed hair becomes fashionable for women in US and Britain
.......................1st Pulitzer Prizes awarded in Literature
.......................Hogarth Press founded by Leonard and Virginia Woolf outside of London; eventually publishes work by
...................................T. S. Eliot, E.M. Forster, Katherine Mansfield, among others
.......................Edna St. Vincent Millay, Renascence and Other Poems; T.S. Eliot, Prufrock and Other Observations; C.G.
...................................Jung, Psychology of the Unconscious; W.C. Williams, Al Que Quiere!

1918................WWI: Hapsburg Empire dissolves into 4 nations (Austria, Hungary, Czechoslovakia, and the Kingdom
...................................of Slovenes, Serbs, and Croats); food rationing in Britain; German offensive on Western Front;
...................................Germans bomb Paris; Wilson's 14 points for world peace; Japanese advance into Siberia;
...................................Germany suspends submarine warfare; Czechoslovakia proclaims independence; Allied
...................................conference at Versailles agrees on peace terms for Germany; Armistice declared in Nov.;
...................................German fleet surrenders
.......................Race riot in Chester PA kills 5; race riot in Philadelphia kills 4
.......................Daylight saving time introduced in US for 1st time as part of the "war effort": it lasts only through 1919,
...................................although it is used again in WWII, and dropped again. Then in 1966 the Uniform Time Act
...................................recommends its continual use
.......................Regular airmail service established between NY and DC; 1st airmail postage
.......................Eugene V. Debs, American socialist and presidential candidate, sentenced to prison for violation of
...................................espionage and sedition law
.......................United Lutheran Church established in US
.......................Women over 30 get the vote in Britain
.......................Start of world-wide influenza epidemic; kills 22 million by 1920
.......................Quantum theory introduced by Max Planck
.......................1st best-selling weight-loss manual, Diet and Health, With Key to the Calories, by Lulu Hunt Peters
.......................US Post Office burns installments of James Joyce's Ulysses, published in the Little Review
.......................Henry Adams, The Education of Henry Adams, winner of Pulitzer Prize for Literature; Willa Cather,
...................................My Antonia; Rebecca West, Return of the Soldier; Georgia Douglas Johnson, The Heart of a Woman

1919................Prohibition: 18th Amendment to the Constitution prohibits the sale, manufacture, or transport of
...................................alcoholic beverages
.......................Pres. Wilson presides over 1st League of Nations meeting in Paris
......................."Red Summer": 26 race riots between April and October in cities such as Charleston, Chicago, DC, as
...................................African American servicemen return from WWI; 83 lynchings of African Americans reported
.......................Strikes by NY dock workers and American Steel
.......................International Labor Conference in Washington endorses 8 hour work day
.......................Postal worker Charles Caplan discovers 16 dynamite bombs intended for prominent members of the
...................................political and business establishment. A nationwide campaign against suspected anarchists and
...................................people with communist sympathies begins
.......................Bombs explode at the homes of 7 government officials, including Attorney General A. Mitchell Palmer
.......................American Communist Party established
.......................Emma Goldman, political agitator and free-love advocate, deported to Russia along with 250 others
...................................accused of sedition and anarchism
.......................1st Pan-African Congress organized by W.E.B. DuBois
.......................Lady Astor elected 1st woman member of Parliament
.......................Solar eclipse proves Albert Einstein's theory of general relativity by showing gravity's effect on light,
...................................which he had postulated in 1907 and calculated in 1915; results from eclipse read at a joint
...................................session of The Royal Society and the Royal Astronomical Society in London, which brings
................................... Einstein world-wide fame
.......................Grand Canyon National Monument established as national park
.......................1st gas-powered lawn mower developed by American Edwin George
.......................Pogo Sticks developed by George Hansburg of IL
.......................A.D. Julliard endows Julliard School of Music in NY
.......................Sherwood Anderson, Winesburg, Ohio; Thomas Hardy, Collected Poems; Carl Sandburg, Corn Huskers,
...................................winner of Pulitzer Prize for Literature; Amy Lowell, Pictures of the Floating World

1920................19th Amendment to the Constitution guarantees women the right to vote
.......................Pres. Wilson awarded Nobel Peace Prize
.......................US Senate votes against joining the League of Nations
.......................The Hague selected as seat of International Court of Justice
.......................The Dept. of Justice leads coordinated mass arrests of radicals and anarchists in 33 cities, jailing a total
...................................of 2,700 people
.......................The country celebrates the 300th anniversary of the Mayflower landing at Plymouth Rock, with a series
...................................of patriotic celebrations
.......................Women's Bureau established in the Dept. of Labor, under the direction of Mary Anderson
.......................League of Women voters founded in Chicago
.......................Alien Land Tax of CA prevents Japanese immigrants from owning farms
.......................Presidential election returns 1st broadcast on radio, from KDKA in Pittsburgh
.......................Marcus Garvey's Universal Improvement Association holds national convention in Harlem; 1st African
...................................American mass movement
.......................Sacco and Vanzetti, Italian-born left-wing labor agitators, indicted for alleged payroll robbery,
...................................executed 1927
.......................Bomb explodes on Wall Street at the JP Morgan Bank, kills 33 and injures 400; ignited by anarchist
.......................According to the 1920 census, for the 1st time more than half of all Americans live in cities
.......................Earthquake in Kansu Province, China, kills 200,000
.......................Joan of Arc canonized by Pope Benedict XV
.......................Swiss psychiatrist Herman Rorschach develops ink blot tests
.......................Negro National League formed, 1st professional baseball association for African Americans
.......................Dadaism: international exposition in Berlin
.......................Mamie Smith, 1st African American to record blues songs commercially
.......................Edna St. Vincent Millay, A Few Figs from Thistles; Colette, Cheri; Edith Wharton, The Age of
...................................Innocence; Sinclair Lewis, Main Street; F. Scott Fitzgerald, This Side of Paradise; Ezra
...................................Pound, Hugh Selwyn Mauberley; T.S. Eliot, The Sacred Wood

1921................Warren G. Harding inaugurated 29th US President
.......................Tomb of the Unknown Soldier dedicated at Arlington National Cemetery
.......................Eugene Debs, American Socialist Party leader, pardoned
.......................Immigration Quota Law enacted to severely restrict immigration, especially from eastern and southern
...................................Europe; quotas are based on percentage of foreign-born Americans counted in the 1910 Census
.......................US General Accounting Office formed
.......................Alice Robertson (OK) becomes 1st woman to preside over the House of Representatives
.......................1st transcontinental air mail flight from San Francisco to NY
.......................1st aerial crop dusting, by pilot John Macready in Dayton OH, for the US Dept. of Agriculture
.......................Sacco and Vanzetti found guilty of murder
.......................KKK activities throughout the South, branding, whipping, and lynching African Americans and
...................................sympathizers
.......................Race riot in Tulsa OK leaves 85 dead; Negro section of town leveled
.......................Hitler's storm troopers begin to terrorize political opponents in Germany
.......................Albert Einstein awarded Nobel Prize in Physics; Einstein lectures in the US on the theory of
...................................relativity
.......................Radio station KDKA in Pittsburgh transmits 1st regular radio programs in US
.......................Corsets go out of fashion
.......................1st "Miss America" beauty pageant held, in Atlantic City, NJ, the winner is 15-year-old Margaret
...................................Gorman of DC
.......................1st Band-Aids developed by Johnson & Johnson employee Earle Dickson
.......................Ulysses S. Grant Memorial installed at the base of Capitol Hill in DC
......................."Shuffle Along," Broadway show with all African American cast, opens in NYC
.......................Albert Einstein wins Nobel Prize
.......................Edgar Arlington Robinson wins Pulitzer Prize in Literature
.......................Marianne Moore, Poems (pub. in London); John Dos Passos, Three Soldiers; Sherwood Anderson,
...................................The Triumph of the Egg; D.H. Lawrence, Women in Love; E.A. Robinson, Collected Poems

1922................KKK holds mass initiations in Tulsa
.......................Secretary of the Interior Albert Fall leases Teapot Dome oil reserve in Wyoming in exchange
...................................for illegal cash and kickbacks
.......................Anti-lynching legislation passed in the House but filibustered in the Senate
.......................Ozawa v. US: US Supreme Court rules Japanese are ineligible for US citizenship
.......................Rebecca L. Felton elected 1st woman Senator
.......................Lincoln Memorial in Washington DC completed, designed by Henry Bacon with sculpture by
...................................Daniel Chester French
.......................Knickerbocker Theater roof collapses from 26-inch snowfall; 97 die in worst DC snowstorm
.......................Mussolini marches on Rome, forms Fascist government
.......................British archeologists open tomb of King Tutankhamen
.......................A Chippewa man thought to the the oldest living human dies at age 137 in Minnesota
.......................1st documentary art film, "Nanook of the North," by Robert Flaherty
.......................Joseph Stella, The Voice of the City of New York Interpreted: The Bridge
.......................Reader's Digest begins publication
.......................E. A. Robinson wins Pulitzer Prize in Poetry
.......................T.S. Eliot, The Waste Land; James Joyce, Ulysses; Katherine Mansfield, The Garden Party; Claude
...................................McKay, Harlem Shadows; James Weldon Johnson, ed., The Book of American Negro Poetry;
...................................F. Scott Fitzgerald, Tales of the Jazz Age

1923................b. Denise Levertov
.......................Calvin Coolidge inaugurated 30th US President after death of Warren Harding
.......................Teapot Dome Scandal over leasing of government oil reserves in WY; Secretary of the Interior Albert
...................................Fall is convicted and becomes the only cabinet member in history to be imprisoned for
...................................crimes committed in office
.......................Coolidge becomes 1st US President to broadcast speeches on the radio, including his 1st address to
...................................Congress
.......................Tri-State conclave of KKK in Kokomo, IN; 200,000 members attend
.......................African American town of Rosewood, FL completely destroyed by a white mob; many residents
...................................murdered
.......................Evangelist Aimee Semple McPherson opens Angelus Temple in LA with seating for 5,000
.......................1st traffic stop lights, developed by African American inventor Garrett Augustus Morgan
.......................1st birth control clinic opens in NY
.......................Insulin treatments for diabetics 1st used
.......................Nazi party holds 1st congress in Munich
.......................Earthquake in Tokyo and Yokohama; 120,000 dead
.......................Freer Gallery of Art opens in Washington DC
.......................The Charleston dance popularized after being introduced in the Broadway show "Runnin' Wild"
.......................Time Magazine begins publication
.......................Edna St. Vincent Millay, The Harp Weaver, wins Pulitzer Prize; Nobel Prize in Literature to W.B. Yeats
.......................Jean Toomer, Cane; e.e. cummings, The Enormous Room; Wallace Stevens, Harmonium, W.C. Williams,
...................................Spring and All

1924................Native Americans granted US citizenship by US Congress
.......................US immigration bill excludes all Japanese and limits total immigration to 2% of any nationality
...................................already in the US, as counted in the 1890 census, thus giving preference to western
...................................Europeans.  This act intensifies the quota law of 1921.
.......................J. Edgar Hoover appointed Director of FBI
.......................1st female governor elected in TX: Miriam “"Ma" Ferguson
........................Pres. Calvin Coolidge's son dies of blood poisoning
.......................1st use of radio advertising in a presidential campaign
.......................1st use of gas chamber to execute criminals, in NV
.......................Clarence Birdseye develops frozen food
.......................Alvin "Shipwreck" Kelly begins the fad of flagpole sitting
.......................1st exhibition of American Folk Art at the Whitney Studio Club in NYC
.......................Washington Senators baseball team wins 1st and only World Series
.......................Robert Frost wins Pulitzer Prize in Poetry
.......................Marianne Moore, Observations; Jessie Fauset, There Is Confusion; E.M. Forster, A Passage to India

1925................d. Amy Lowell
.......................Inspection of immigrants moved from American ports to American consulates abroad
.......................John T. Scopes goes on trial for violating TN law prohibiting the teaching of the theory of evolution;
...................................convicted then acquitted on a technicality
........................Nellie Tayloe Ross (WY) elected 1st woman governor
........................Lucille Atcherson (OH) appointed 1st woman to hold a diplomatic post, part of the American legation
...................................in Switzerland
.......................Chrysler Motor Co. founded by Walter Chrysler
.......................Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters organized; A. Philip Randolph is President
.......................Marcus Garvey, leader of the Universal Negro Improvement Assn., indicted for mail fraud and sentenced
...................................to 5 years in jail
........................Largest KKK march: 40,000 demonstrate on the Mall in DC
........................David Stephenson, IN grand dragon of the KKK, convicted of murder
.......................Hitler reorganizes the Nazi Party, publishes Vol. 1 of Mein Kampf
.......................Art Deco style popularized by major exhibition in Paris
.......................Josephine Baker becomes a star of the Paris stage
.......................Crossword puzzles become popular
.......................1st air-conditioned movie theater: the Rivoli in NYC
.......................1st Macy's Thanksgiving Day parade held in NYC
.......................Tribune Tower opens in Chicago, IL, a 36-story gothic building incorporating stones from famous sites
...............................................from around the world in the base
.......................1st Guggenheim Fellowship awarded to Aaron Copland
.......................E. A. Robinson wins 2nd Pulitzer Prize in Poetry
.......................Survey Graphic publishes a special issue on "the New Negro," edited by Alain Locke; start of the Harlem
...................................Renaissance
.......................The New Yorker magazine begins publication; Marianne Moore becomes editor of The Dial
.......................Pulitzer Prizes in Literature to Sinclair Lewis and E.A. Robinson
.......................Gertrude Stein, The Making of Americans; F. Scott Fitzgerald, The Great Gatsby; Sherwood Anderson,
...................................Dark Laughter; Theodore Dreiser, An American Tragedy; Ernest Hemingway, In Our Time;
...................................Anita Loos, Gentlemen Prefer Blondes; Edna Ferber, So Big; Countee Cullen, Color; Alain Locke,
...................................Ed., The New Negro

1926................Corrigan v. Buckley: US Supreme Court upholds racially restrictive covenants between homeowners
.......................Ford Auto Co. institutes the 5 day, 8 hour a day, work week
.......................Massive flooding in the Mississippi River valley from IL to LA kills approximately 1,000 people
...................... Sarah Lawrence College founded in NY
.......................Kodak produces 1st 16mm movie film
.......................Fascist youth organizations founded in Germany and Italy
.......................Scottish inventor John L. Baird demonstrates television
.......................Mayan temples found in Mexico by American archeologists
.......................1st flights over the North Pole by American and Norwegian teams
.......................American Gertrude Ederle is 1st woman to swim the English Channel
.......................National Capital Park and Planning Commission established in DC
.......................Public Buildings Act in DC leads to construction of many Federal buildings
.......................National Broadcasting Company (NBC) organized
.......................Book-of-the-Month Club founded, 1st to sell books by subscription
.......................1st feature movie with a soundtrack, Don Juan, includes musical background and sound effects (but
...................................no dialogue); stars John Barrymore, Mary Astor and Myrna Loy
.......................Walter Gropius, Bauhaus, Dessau, Germany
.......................Langston Hughes publishes his essay, "The Negro Artist and the Racial Mountain," in The Nation in June
.......................Amy Lowell wins Pulitzer Prize in Poetry
.......................Ernest Hemingway, The Sun Also Rises; Amy Lowell, What's O'Clock; Edna Ferber, Show Boat;
...................................Langston Hughes, The Weary Blues; A.A. Milne, Winnie the Pooh; Hart Crane, White Buildings

1927................Sacco and Vanzetti executed by electrocution in MA, despite widespread protests
.......................US Federal Radio Commission created
.......................Charles Lindbergh makes transatlantic solo flight in The Spirit of St. Louis, nonstop from NY to Paris
...................................in 33.5 hours
.......................Herbert Hoover coordinates relief efforts for flood victims in the Mississippi River Valley
.......................Iron Lung developed to treat coal gas poisoning; it will later become widely used in treating polio
.......................Josephine Baker becomes a star in Paris
.......................Babe Ruth hits 60 home runs for the NY Yankees
.......................Academy of Motional Picture Arts and Sciences founded
........................Henry Ford begins production of the Model A
.......................1st talking movie: The Jazz Singer, starring Al Jolson, top-grossing movie of the year
.......................
1st primitive TV set invented by Philo Farnsworth
.......................Duke Ellington Band begins performing at The Cotton Club in Harlem
.......................Leonora Speyer wins Pulitzer Prize in Poetry
.......................Virginia Woolf, To the Lighthouse; Mourning Dove (Hum-Ishu-Ma), Cogowea, the Half Blood (1st
...................................novel by a Native American woman); Thornton Wilder, The Bridge of San Luis Rey; Ole
...................................Rölvaag, Giants in the Earth (English trans.); Willa Cather, Death Comes for the Archbishop;
.................................. James Weldon Johnson, God's Trombones;.Langston Hughes, Fine Clothes to the Jew; Countee
..................................Cullen, ed., Caroling Dusk

1928................b. Anne Sexton
.......................Herbert Hoover inaugurated 31st US President
.......................Stock Market crash on “"Black Friday"; beginning of the Great Depression in US and world economic
...................................crisis
.......................Oscar S. DePriest elected to the House of Representatives from Illinois; 1st African American in Congress
...................................after nearly a three-decade dry stretch; 1st Northern African American ever elected to Congress
.......................St. Valentine's Massacre: 6 notorious Chicago gangsters machine-gunned to death by rival gang
.......................Alexander Fleming of Britain discovers penicillin
.......................Amelia Earhart is 1st woman to fly across the Atlantic Ocean
.......................Woman's suffrage in Britain reduced from 30 to 21
.......................1st scheduled TV broadcasts by WGY in NY
.......................Columbia Broadcasting System (CBS) organized
.......................1st La-Z-Boy chair, developed by Edward M. Knabusch and Edwin J. Shoemaker
.......................Janet Gaynor, 1st woman to win Best Actress Oscar Award
.......................1st Mickey Mouse films produced by Walt Disney Company
.......................1st presliced bread, developed by American inventor Otto Frederick Rohwedder
.......................The California State Park Survey, also known as the Olmsted Report, sets aside natural and developed areas
...................................for the protection of redwoods, among other things; this conservation plan is still followed today
.......................Franz Boas publishes Anthropology and Modern Life, a refutation of the Fascist theory of a master race
.......................At Olympic Games in Amsterdam, women compete for the 1st time
.......................Archive of American Folk Song established
.......................Chateau-Thierry Monument dedicated in France, housing graves of US and French Armed Forces from
...................................WWI, designed by Paul Cret
.......................Charles Demuth, The Figure 5 in Gold
.......................E.A. Robinson wins 3rd Pulitzer Prize in Poetry
.......................Stephen Vincent Benét, John Brown's Body; Edna St. Vincent Millay, Buck in Snow; Virginia Woolf, A
...................................Room Of One's Own
; Ernest Hemingway, A Farewell to Arms; Margaret Mead, The Coming of Age
...................................in Samoa
; DH Lawrence, Lady Chatterly's Lover; Claude McKay, Home to Harlem; Nella Larsen,
...................................Quicksand; Thomas Hardy, Winter Words (posthumous)

1929................b. Adrienne Rich
.......................Herbert Hoover inaugurated 31st US President
.......................Collapse of the US Stock Exchange on "Black Tuesday" (Oct 29) brings on the start of the Great
...................................Depression (through 1939), the longest and most severe economic depression in the industrialized
...................................world
.......................Albert Fall, Sec'y of the Interior under Coolidge indicted for bribery in Teapot Dome Scandal
.......................Einstein publishes his Unified Field Theory
.......................St. Valentine's Day Massacre in Chicago: 6 gangsters of the Bugs Moran gang and one bystander killed by
..................................rivals suspected to be Al Capone's men
.......................1st canned food sold by Gerber Co.
.......................The cure for pellagra discovered by Dr. Conrad Elvehjem of the Univ. of WI: once common among the poor,
...................................the disease is caused by a deficiency of niacin
.......................US and Canada sign agreement for the preservation of Niagara Falls and development of hydropower along
..................................the border
.......................New US paper currency issued, smaller by one-third
.......................Edition of Emily Dickinson's poems published with 150 new poems
.......................1st Academy Awards for movie industry from the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences
.......................Bell Labs experiment with color TV, unveils prototype
.......................1st crystal clocks, accurate to one second in ten years
.......................Richard Neutra, Philip Lovell House, Los Angeles
.......................Museum of Modern Art in NY opens
.......................The National Women's Party purchases the Sewall-Belmont House in DC, its fifth and final headquarters
.......................John Steuart Curry, Tornado over Kansas
.......................Stephen Vincent Benet wins Pulitzer Prize in Poetry
.......................Ernest Hemingway, A Farewell to Arms; Erich Maria Remarque,.All Quiet on the Western Front; Jessie
...................................Fauset, Plum Bun; William Faulkner, The Sound and the Fury; Wallace Thurman, The Blacker
...................................the Berry; Thomas Wolfe, Look Homeward, Angel

1930................Pluto discovered by C.W. Tombaugh
.......................Mahatma Gandhi leads the Salt March; civil disobedience spreads in India against British rule
.......................Scotch tape developed by engineer Richard Drew of 3M
.......................William van Alen, Chrysler Building, New York
.......................Grant Wood, American Gothic
.......................Conrad Aiken wins Pulitzer Prize in Poetry
.......................Hart Crane, The Bridge; Robert Frost, Collected Poems; William Faulkner, As I Lay Dying; Langston Hughes,
...................................Not Without Laughter
; T.S. Eliot, Ash-Wednesday

1931................US Senate passes Veterans Compensation Act over Pres. Hoover's veto
......................."Star Spangled Banner"” becomes official US anthem, words by Francis Scott Key
.......................Hattie T. Caraway (D-AR), 1st woman elected to Senate
......................."Scottsboro Boys" trial: 9 AL African-American men accused of raping 2 white women
......................."Marigold Report" becomes the NAACP's legal strategy against segregation, with a focus on fighting
...................................segregation in schools
.......................Coal miners and operators in Harlan County, KY wage industrial war
.......................Gangster Al Capone imprisoned for tax evasion
.......................Jehovah's Witnesses founded
.......................Massive flooding on the Huang He River in China causes an estimated 3.7 million deaths, the deadliest
...................................natural disaster ever recorded
.......................Jane Addams, founder of Hull House and the Women's League for Peace and Freedom awarded Nobel
...................................Peace Prize
.......................Empire State Building completed in NY; Rockefeller Center construction begins; George Washington
...................................Bridge completed, connecting NJ and NY
.......................National Archives constructed in DC
.......................Alexander Calder develops the first mobiles, sculptures that are suspended and move kinetically; Charles
...................................Sheeler, Classic Landscape
.......................Robert Frost wins 2nd Pulitzer Prize in Poetry
.......................Pearl S. Buck, The Good Earth; Robert Frost's Collected Poems awarded Pulitzer Prize; Langston Hughes,
...................................Dear Lovely Death (limited edition); Langston Hughes, The Negro Mother; James Weldon Johnson,
...................................Black Manhattan


1932................b. Sylvia Plath
.......................US Federal Reserve System reorganized
.......................17,000 WWI veterans march on Washington to demand their “"bonus pay"; bill defeated by Senate;
...................................Hoover offers to pay fares home; those that remain are evicted by US Army under Gen.
...................................Douglas MacArthur
.......................Roosevelt uses the phrase “"New Deal" in a speech accepting Democratic presidential nomination
.......................1st unemployment insurance law enacted in WI
.......................Construction begins on Golden Gate Bridge in San Francisco
.......................Amelia Earhart makes solo flight across the Atlantic Ocean, from Newfoundland to Ireland, in 15 hours
.......................Lindbergh baby kidnapping electrifies the nation; the 20-month-old son of aviation hero Charles
...................................Lindbergh is discovered dead two months later
.......................Development of 1st vaccine against Yellow Fever, by researchers at the Rockefeller Fdn. in NYC
.......................Ford develops the V-8
.......................Folger Shakespeare Library opens, Washington, DC
.......................Tomb of the Unknowns dedicated at Arlington National Cemetery
.......................George Washington Masonic National Memorial opens in Arlington, VA
.......................International Peace Garden opens, site straddles North Dakota and Manitoba
.......................George Dillon wins Pulitzer Prize in Poetry
.......................Sterling Brown, Southern Road; Langston Hughes, Scottsboro Limited; Langston Hughes, The Dream Keeper
...................................(for children); Langston Hughes and Arna Bontemps, Popo and Fifina (for children); Aldous Huxley,
...................................Brave New World; Dashiell Hammett, The Thin Man; John Dos.Passos, 1919; William Faulkner,
.................................. Light in August

1933................Franklin Delano Roosevelt inaugurated 32nd US President, serves 4 terms, the longest of any Pres.
.......................20th Amendment changes the date of Presidential inaugurations to January 20
.......................Prohibition repealed (21st Amendment)
.......................Frances Perkins becomes 1st woman cabinet member when she is named Secretary of Labor
.......................US Congress votes independence for Philippines
.......................US Congress passes Agricultural Adjustment and Federal Emergency Relief Acts
.......................Adolph Hitler appointed German Chancellor; 1st concentration camps erected; boycott of Jews begins;
...................................Mass censorship in Germany; approx. 60,000 artists emigrate (through 1939); Dachau prison
...................................camp built; books by Jews and other "undesirables" publicly burned
.......................Chicago World's Fair opens
.......................Nobel Prize for Physics to Thomas Hunt Morgan for discovery of heredity transmission function of
...................................chromosomes
.......................Albert Einstein moves to US; takes teaching post at Princeton University
.......................Hocutt v. NC: NAACP challenge fails to desegregate higher eduation in NC
.......................George Ballanchine and Lincoln Kirstein found the School of American Ballet
.......................Philo Farnsworth develops electronic TV
.......................Pres. Roosevelt begins radio broadcasts, "Fireside Chats"
.......................Archeologist Edgar B. Howard unearths Clovis points in Clovis, NM, chipped stone spear points used
...................................by prehistoric humans for hunting
.......................Leadbelly makes his first recordings for the Library of Congress
.......................Movie premiere of "King Kong"; special effects include stop-action photography, miniaturization
...................................and rear projection
.......................Archibald MacLeish wins Pulitzer Prize in Poetry
.......................Gertrude Stein, The Autobiography of Alice B.Toklas; W.B. Yeats, Collected Poems; Nathaniel West, Miss
...................................Lonelyhearts
; James Weldon Johnson, Along This Way

1934................b. Audre Lorde
.......................The New Deal: Pres. Roosevelt inaugurates jobs programs such as the Civilian Conservation Corps to
...................................combat Depression; US Gold Reserve Act authorizes Pres. to revalue the dollar; US Federal
...................................Farm Mortgage Corp. organized
.......................Nazi forced sterilizations of gypsies, African-Germans, mentally and physically disabled begins
.......................Bank robbers Bonnie and Clyde killed in police ambush
.......................Thomas Hart Benton, The Ballad of the Jealous Lover of Lone Green Valley
.......................Virgil Thomson and Gertrude Stein's opera, “"Four Saints in Three Acts,"”opens in Hartford CT
.......................Robert Hillyer wins Pulitzer Prize in Poetry
.......................Langston Hughes, The Ways of White Folks; F. Scott Fitzgerald, Tender is the Night; Henry Roth, Call It
...................................Sleep
; Nancy Cunard, ed., Negro, An Anthology

1935................Dust Bowl: crops ruined in KS, CO, WY, OK, TX, NM; many leave farms and head west toward CA
.......................New Deal: Labor Relations Act supports unions and investigates unfair employment practices; Social
...................................Security Act provides comprehensive care for elderly, disabled, and unemployed
.......................United Mine Workers leader John L. Lewis forms the CIO, a union to represent industrial workers
.......................Rise of fascism in Europe; Nazis repudiate Versailles Treaty and reintroduce compulsory military
...................................service; Nuremberg Laws against Jews enacted in Germany
.......................National Council of Negro Women founded by Mary McLeod Bethune
.......................Hollins v. OK: US Supreme Court overturns death penalty of an African American convicted of rape
...................................on the grounds that no African American had served on juries in the County within living
...................................memory
.......................Charles Richter, US scientist, develops a system to measure the strength of earthquakes
.......................Alcoholics Anonymous organizes in NY, developed by Bill W. (a stockbroker) and Dr. Bob S. (a surgeon)
.......................1st parking meters, developed by OK journalist Carl Magee
.......................Nazi propaganda documentary, "Triumph of the Will," by Leni Riefenstahl
.......................US Supreme Court building constructed in Washington, DC
.......................1st annual cherry blossom festival celebrated in Washington, DC
.......................Federal Writers Project established (runs through 1939)
.......................Audrey Wudenmann wins Pulitzer Prize in Poetry
.......................Marianne Moore, Selected Poems; Zora Neale Hurston, Mules and Men; John Steinbeck, Tortilla Flat;
.................................. Ernest Hemingway, Green Hills of Africa; May Miller, Negro History in Thirteen Plays; E. A.
...................................Robinson, King Jasper (posthumous); T.S. Eliot, Collected Poems

1936................Floods sweep Johnstown, PA
.......................Jessie Owens wins 4 Olympic gold medals at Berlin Olympics
.......................Nazi troops enter Rhineland; Germany, Japan, and Italy form Axis
.......................Mary McLeod Bethune appointed Director of Negro Affairs of the National Youth
...................................Administration; 1st major appontment of an African American woman in the Federal
...................................government
.......................Spanish Civil War (through 1939)
.......................Hoover Dam completed on Colorado River in NV, the world's tallest dam at that time, generating
...................................electricty and creating Lake Mead, the largest reservoir in the world
.......................Dr. Alexis Carrel develops artificial heart
.......................1st suntan lotion developed by L'Oreal founder Eugene Schueller
.......................Sun Valley opens in ID, 1st destination ski resort in US
.......................Frank Lloyd Wright, Falling Water, Bear Run, PA
.......................Life Magazine begins publication
.......................Federal Theatre Project established
.......................New Directions Press founded by James McLaughlin; eventually publishes Lwrence Ferlinghetti,
...................................Marianne Moore, Wallace Stevens, Dylan Thomas, and Tennessee Williams, among others
.......................Robert P. Tristram Coffin wins Pulitzer Prize in Poetry
.......................Marianne Moore, What Are Years?; Margaret Mitchell, Gone With the Wind; William Faulker, Absalom,
...................................Absalom!


1937................US Supreme Court rules in favor of minimum wage law for women
.......................1st jet engine built by Frank Whittle
.......................1st African American Federal judge appointed, William H. Hastie
.......................Insulin used to control diabetes
.......................Amelia Earhart lost on Pacific flight
.......................Boxer Joe Louis wins world heavyweight championship
.......................Dirigible Hindenburg destroyed by fire in NJ; 33 dead; described in 1st transcontinental radio broadcast
.......................Spam, a spiced ham product packaged in cans, introduced by Hormel Foods
.......................Gold Gate Bridge opens, San Francisco; architect, Joseph B. Strauss
.......................Fallingwater completed by architect Frank Lloyd Wright in Bear Run, PA
.......................Picasso exhibits “"Guernica" mural at Paris World Exhibition
.......................Paul Mellon endows National Gallery, Washington DC
.......................Robert Frost wins 3rd Pulitzer Prize in Poetry
.......................Zora Neale Hurston, Their Eyes Were Watching God; Isak Dineson, Out of Africa; John Steinbeck, Of
...................................Mice and Men


1938................40 hour work week established in US
.......................Supreme Court rules Univ. of Missouri Law School must admit African-Americans because of lack of
................................... other facilities in the area
.......................Harvard Univ. grants honorary degree to Marian Anderson, African-American singer
.......................Pres. Roosevelt sends appeal to Hitler and Mussolini to settle European problems amicably
.......................Progroms in Germany against Jews, Gypsies, gays, political protesters; Nazis invade Austria and
...................................Sudetenland; Krystalnacht rampage in Berlin against Jewish-owned businesses and synagogues
...................................lead to deaths of 91 Jews and 26,000 are sent to concentration camps
.......................NY becomes 1st state to require medical tests before issuing marriage licenses
.......................1st cars with automatic transmissions, the Chrysler Fluid Drive
.......................Supercomics debuts Action Comics No. 1, created by Jerry Siegel and Joseph Shuster
.......................Walter Gropius, Gropius House, Lincoln, MA
.......................Marya Zaturenska wins Pulitzer Prize in Poetry
.......................Delmore Schwartz, In Dreams Begin Responsibilities; Robinson Jeffers, Selected Poetry; Marjorie
...................................Kinnan Rawlings, The Yearling (wins Pulitzer Prize for novel); Thornton Wilder, Our Town
...................................(wins Pulitzer Prize for Drama); Richard Wright, Uncle Tom's Children; W.C. Williams,
...................................Complete Collected Poems

1939................Pres. Roosevelt asks Congress for additional defense funding and demands assurances from Hitler and
...................................Mussolini that they will not attack US
.......................Pres. Roosevelt becomes 1st US Pres. to appear on TV
.......................Igor Stravinsky constructs 1st helicopter
.......................WWII: Germany, Britain, France, USSR declare war; women and children evacuated from London; US
...................................supplies European allies with arms and equipment; Germans overrun western Poland; USSR
...................................invades Poland from the east; British Expeditionary Force sent to France
.......................Most informal state dinner: Pres. Roosevelt invites King George VI to dine at his private home in Hyde Park,
...................................NY; serves hot dogs
.......................Coal strike by United Mine Workers under John L. Lewis
.......................NAACP establishes a Legal Defense and Educational Fund to fight discrimination and segregation in the
...................................courts
.......................1st FM radio, WDRC-FM
.......................1st nylon stockings
.......................NY World's Fair features the Trylon and the Perisphere
.......................Greatest year in movie history: releases include Gone With The Wind, Mr. Smith Goes to Washington,
...................................Stagecoach, The Wizard of Oxz, Wuthering Heights, Only Angels Have Wings, and Gunga Din
.......................Hattie McDaniel becomes 1st African American woman to win a best supporting actress Oscar, for her
...................................role as Mammy in the movie "Gone With the Wind"
.......................Philip Goodwin and Edward Durell Stone, Museum of Modern Art, NYC; Frank Lloyd Wright, Fallingwater
.......................1st mass-market paperbacks in the US: Pocket Books
.......................John Gould Fletcher wins Pulitzer Prize in Poetry
.......................John Steinbeck, The Grapes of Wrath; James Joyce, Finnegan's Wake; Raymond Chandler, The Big Sleep;
.................................. Dorothy Parker, Here Lies; Nathanael West, The Day of the Locust; W. B. Yeats, Last Poems

1940................WWII: Italy enters war; Germans launch Blitzkrieg in Belgium and the Netherlands; Allies evacuated
...................................from Dunkirk; Germans enter Paris; blitz over Britain; US institutes a military draft lottery;
...................................food rationing in Britain; Finland signs peace treaty with USSR; Germany invades Norway and
...................................Denmark; Dutch and Belgian armies capitulate to Germans; Germans enter Paris; RAF begins
...................................night bombing of Germany; Japan, Germany and Italy sign pact; Germany intensifies U-boat
...................................warfare; Auschwitz designated a Nazi death camp for the "Final Solution"
.......................1st African American general in US Armed Forces, Benjamin O. Davis; FDR rules out troop integration
...................................for reasons of "morale"
.......................1st electron microscope, Radio Corp. of America, NJ
.......................1st polyester fiber, developed by British chemists John Rex Whinfield and James Tennant Dickson
.......................1st nylon stockings debut at the NY World's Fair (at the Wonder World of Chemistry exhibit)
.......................Albert Einstein becomes US citizen
.......................Bald Eagle, a symbol of US, added to the Endangered Species list
.......................Lascaux caves discovered in France; prehistoric cave paintings are approx. 20,000 BCE
.......................Mark Van Doren wins Pulitzer Prize in Poetry
.......................Richard Wright, Native Son; John Steinbeck, Of Mice and Men; Ernest Hemingway, For Whom the
...................................Bell Tolls
; Langston Hughes, The Big Sea; Ezra Pound, Cantos; Robert Hayden, Heart-Shape
...................................in the Dust;
Thomas Wolfe, You Can't Go Home Again; John O'Hara, Pal Joey